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Base oils are the basis of commercial oils, the necessary properties of which are obtained by mixing and adding various additives. Base oils differ in viscosity, chemical composition and some other properties.
The American Petroleum Institute (API) identifies four main groups of BM for the manufacture of motor oils (in accordance with the J300 API standard, there are five groups of BM). The evaluation criterion for the division into classes is the physico-chemical characteristic.
The base oils of group I contain sulfur more than 0.03%, saturated hydrocarbons less than 90% and a viscosity index of 80-120. The demand for group I oils is decreasing every year, because they contain a lot of sulfur and aromatic compounds. They are usually used in the production of industrial groups of oils, for marine transport and motor oils of old internal combustion engines.
The base oils of groups II and III are hydrotreated oils with an unsaturated hydrocarbon content above 99%. The difference between them is that the viscosity index of group III is more than 120. More than 90% of the total volume of lubricants in the world can be produced from group II oils. This is especially true in North America, where it dominates the supply of base oil. Group II oils are used where a higher viscosity index and low evaporation are required.
Group III of the base is used for motor oils with energy-saving properties. Fuel economy is a modern necessity. Car manufacturers already use 0W-20 oils for “factory filling” of assembled engines. 0W-16 oil is already used in some new engines, and Japanese automakers are further reducing the viscosity to 0W-12, 0W-8 and even 0W-4. Group III is also used for the production of oils using the gas-liquid technology (GTL).
Group IV base oils or (Polyalphaolefin base oil (PAO)) It is obtained by synthesizing ethylene or butylene monomers from short monomers into long stable chains. Synthetic oils created on the basis of PAO have high viscosity, their composition does not contain paraffin molecules, the finished product is completely devoid of sulfur and metal impurities
Base oil SN-150 is intended for use in machines and mechanisms of industrial equipment, the working conditions of which do not impose special requirements on the antioxidant and anticorrosive properties of oils. It is also used as a basis for the production of lubricants, mainly motor oils.
Technical characteristics of SN-150
The name of the indicator Norm
Kinematic viscosity at 100 °C, mm2/s 4.5-5.5
Viscosity index 94
Mass fraction of sulfur, % 0.5
Coking capacity, % 0.04
Color on the colorimeter, unit CST 1.0
Base oil SN-500 (TU 0253-037-00044434-2003) is an oil distillation product, a component of the base of commercial lubricating oil.
SN-500 base oil is defined as a light base oil of high specification for Class I base oils. It is mainly used in the production of lubricants.
Technical characteristics of SN-500
The name of the indicator Norm
Kinematic viscosity at 100 °C, mm2/s 10.5-11.5
Viscosity index 90
Mass fraction of sulfur, % 1.0
Coking ability, % 0.25
Color on the colorimeter, units of CST 3,5